The Consolidation of the Hacienda, 1700-1819
With the acquisition of Pambamarca and its Alpine plains that produced wool, and with the license of obraje, a new an important business is installed in Guachalá, which is the production of textiles to be sold in Lima, Sta. Fé de Bogotá and even in Spain.
In 1723 Antonio de Ormaza y Ponce de León dies and Guachalá is inherited by his sons Antonio de Ormaza y Villacís and the priest Juan Ormaza de Villacís, who later on gives his part to his brother.
In 1736, a French Mission travels trough the Royal Audience of Quito with the goal to set exactly the center of the Earth. It was preceded by Carlos María de la Condamine and also two Spanish marines joined them: Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa.
Part of the Mission studied the prairies of Cayambe and stayed in Guachalá. Anyway, since these plains were so uneven for being crossed by two rivers, they decided to make their studies in the prairies of Yaruqui instead.
Antonio de Ulloa talks about the questions he was being asked in the fairs of Cayambe, after church, �about the reasons why he did not had women as mistresses and the fact of assisting to an oratory in a nearby hacienda (Guachalá) to the celebration of de holly office, taking place in this a parish of eighty years old and as a companion one of his four or five sons and as a listener one of his last lovers, about the four or five he had had and many stems of every age and sex�. So the Spanish were scandalized with this less-strict moral of the colonies.
The Pambamarca hill located in Guachalá, served as a referral point to the Mission. La Condamine relates that after many large days of scientific work they putted stakes which served to make the calculations and these were stolen by the indians at night.
After investigating this success, the noticed that �word had spread between the indians by interested persons such as land lords, and the rumor was that the academic men had come to the Royal Audience of Quito to get rid of their lands and give them to Spanish land lord. According to them, the stakes served to delimitate the owning of each Spanish land lord, taking away from them the few land the indians owned. It was for this reason that the indians, taking any risk, made the stakes to disappear every night�4
Taking advantage of this trick Antonio de Ormaza y Villacis achieved to buy lands to his indian neighbors.
After the measures were done, the Center of the World was located at 2000 mts from the House of Hacienda splitting this way the lands of the hacienda in the two hemispheres.
In 1743-44 Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa, in their stay in Quito, through their Secret News, tell us of the frustrating visit of don Joseph de Eslaba in the obraje of the Hacienda Guachalá, since the owners where not interested a bit in changing their relation with the indians. It was an inexpugnable territory of the Obraje, inextricable even to the people that worked for the Royalty. �The order of going to the obrajes rouses more fear to the Indians than any other hard punishments that impiety has ever invented against them�. It were 12 hours of work and many of the ones who entered it never came back.
In 1762 Antonio de Ormaza y Villacis dies and the Hacienda is inherited by �his nephews: María Freile y Ormaza spouse of the Sheriff Vicente Joaquin Borja y Larraspurú, Ignacia Freire y Ormaza spouse of Francisco Villacis Y Josefa Zerovi spouse of Francisco María Larrea Zurbano. This is the time most dangerous for the division of the Hacienda. There were so many interested in this subject that the sales were delayed for 5 years. At last don Vicente Borja y Larraspurú, with money in hands, fulfilled any expectations and stood as the only owner�.5
Vicente Borja was a descendant of Papa Alejandro VI and also relative of César and Lucrecia Borja. This powerful Spanish family had immigrated to the colonies in 1605.
Here is when the first inventory of the Hacienda is done by which we know that the majority of the doors in the House of the Hacienda were furred of leather, the cover of the house was made of straw, and there also existed a cell room with a stock for punishment.
During this period the central court looked exactly as it is today with the exception that the roof was made up of straw and the floor was not of pavement.
In 1771 Vicente Borja y Larraspurú dies and the Hacienda passes on to his widow Maria Freire y Ormaza. In this inventory there are also a record of a few rooms covered with straw, uncarved wooden doors covered with leather, each one with a staple and a lock. �Every building are rounded by a tall wall of about a meter in wide, with blocks made up of cangahua (little pieces of rock), its remains are still printed today. This wall forms a rectangle of 200 meters by 100 and makes us wonder how it was constructed, since it is 3 meters tall, this means that the volume is of 1800 cubic meters. The great activity of the obraje continues, a little less than in the last inventory. There are 5 stocks to grab the workers, a room serves as a cell , Kashmir wool, inks, etc., caldrons, water systems, a fulling-mill and every thing needed to develop this activity in which seems the Hacienda mostly focuses on�.6
In 1779 the Parish of Cangahua with its respective parochial church which now will held the functions that the church of Guachalá had being executing.
In 1784 Maria Freire Ormaza de Borja dies and the Hacienda is passed on to his 8 sons, who tried to sell it with no one wanting to buy it at the price of 129.000 pesos. The best offer was of 86.000 pesos, the debts were getting higher and reached the 73.500 pesos, since each one will just receive 1.562,50 pesos.
Finally one of the heirs, don Juan Ramón Borja y Freire, resolves to buy it for 116.000 pesos considering that the Hacienda has been owned by his family since his great grandfathers.
From 1802 to 1810 Juan Ramón Borja has to be absent from Guachalá for health reasons (he had hemorrhoids) and at his coming back he sourly complains of his servants (mestizos), who allied with the indians had stolen the production of the Hacienda.
A man extremely devotional lived with his 5 daughters: Doña Ignacia, doña Manuela, doña Antonia, doña Petrona y doña Andrea, which he dedicated most of his time praying with them). The chapel and his living room were full of saints: San Jacinto, San Antonio, La Purísima, La Virgen de la Merced, San Juan, San Isidro, San Francisco, the lady Of Guadalupe, La Cruz de Cristo, San Miguel y San Ramón were invoked each day and night by this devout catholic, and thanks to his working and to the holly intervention maintained to recover by the year 1819 at his death, the financial state of the Hacienda.